The 1979 lunar agreement was reviewed and developed by the Legal Subcommittee from 1972 to 1979. The agreement was adopted in 1979 by the General Assembly in resolution 34/68. It was not until June 1984 that the fifth country, Austria, ratified the agreement, allowing it to enter into force in July 1984. After ten years of further negotiations, the Lunar Treaty was established in 1979 as a framework for legislation for the development of a system of detailed procedures and, as such, it remained unclear: Article 11.5 stipulates that the use of natural is subject to an international regime that defines the appropriate procedures. To define this regime or these laws, a number of UN-sponsored conferences have been held, but they have not been agreed upon. Persistent differences are mainly based on the importance of the “common heritage of humanity” and on the rights of each country to the natural resources of the Moon. [6] But deeper hidden meanings in the provisions were perceived as problematic. As such, only 18 countries have signed the agreement, including India and France, but not the United States, Russia and China. The treaty was concluded in 1979 and came into force in 1984 for the ratifying parties, after fulfilling the requirement that 5 states were ratified. Since January 2019, 18 states have been parties to the treaty[1], seven of which have ratified the agreement and the rest have entered into membership. [1] [17] Four other states have signed the treaty but have not ratified it. [1] [17] The L5 Society and others successfully refused ratification of the treaty by the U.S. Senate.

[18] Since its inception in 1979, no state has ratified or plans to participate in the self-launch of human space (for example. B the United States, the largest part of the Member States of the European Space Agency, Russia (former Soviet Union), the People`s Republic of China and Japan, and therefore has little or no relevance in international law. [5] Since January 2019, 18 states have been parties to the treaty. [1] A State Party that learns of the forced or forced landing on the moon of a space object or its non-launchers immediately informs the state part that has crashed and the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The second stage of international law is the treaty. Treaties can bind a nation in different ways, with ratification being the best known. The act of ratification means that a national convention is legally bound by the provisions of a particular treaty. In the United States, ratification of an international treaty requires Senate approval. After its ratification, it has the same force of law as a federal statute proclaimed by Congress, and its legal effect can only be denied by the exit of a treaty, Congress proclaims a statute to counter a treaty or the court`s decision that a treaty is unconstitutional. The Lunar Treaty is the fourth child of the space treaty. He was advised and developed from 1972 to 1979 by the Legal Subcommittee for the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). It was adopted by the UN General Assembly in Resolution 34/68 and was launched for signature in 1979, but did not enter into force until June 1984, when the fifth country, Austria, ratified it.

The lunar treaty has been ratified by six countries. Four countries, including France and India, are signatories and seven countries have joined the lunar treaty, including Australia.