These different bodies have decent results, but far from perfect. Although they are able to end hostilities – albeit sometimes late – they tend not to discuss how to tackle local causes of conflict – land ownership, political competition, historical acts of revenge – so that they may be revived. The armed wing of the MILF may not be able to influence other parties to the Bangsamoro conflict, while state security forces may not always put MILF elements in heels. As far as internal quarrels are concerned, they are resolved informally for most years and not by a state institution. A local politician from the island provinces said: “Government institutions do not always work and there is no justice. I know I`m a politician myself, but I have to defend my people. [fn] Interview with the Crisis Group, clan leader, Zamboanga City, 23 December 2019.Hide Footnote As kinship plays in peacekeeping as well as in the maintenance of violence, the BTA, MILF and the national government should focus on interventions, support the former and reduce the latter. Donors, on the other hand, should support needs assessment, funding and technical expertise initiatives. The Sinsuats and the Semas, other prominent families, are unlikely to oppose the rule of the 19th century. The Sinsuats, who control the city aloud from Datu Odin, have traditionally allied themselves with the national government, regardless of which party is in power. For its part, the Sema became famous in the 1990s, after the government`s honeymoon, with the MNLF after the 1996 peace agreement. Muslim Sema is one of the leading MNLF officers of the Jikiri faction, married to Bai Sandra Sema (also a Sinsuat), who is known as the “mother” of Bangsamoro Organic Law for her role in getting him through Congress. Both the Sema and Sinsuat families have an important role to play in the 2022 elections. The Semas will be very likely to support the MILF, while the attitude of the Sinsuat clan may be ambiguous, although it supports the BTA for now.

[fn] Some Sinsuat clan leaders are allied with commanders of the 19th century, while others have unresolved conflicts with individual members. Only one Sinsuat is an active commander in Maguindanao. As for the Semas, most of the family members are allied with the leadership of the 19th century, while some clan supporters are involved in quarrels with members of the over the fomented quarrels. Hide Footnote your victory stunned observers of Maguindanaon politics. First, his opponent Freddie, Toto`s brother, had enormous resources at his disposal. Second, Bai Mariam Maguindanaos is the first governor. By combining his aristocratic ancestry, pragmatic campaigning and caring public image, the “Maguindanao Eagle,” as its supporters call them, overcame the province`s patriarchal traditions.